El Gobierno de Nicaragua emitió hoy un “libro blanco” sobre el proyecto del canal interoceánico que la firma china HKND Group pretende construir en el país centroamericano.

En el “libro blanco” el Gobierno brinda explicaciones sobre cómo los ingenieros de la obra pretenden causar el mínimo impacto al medio ambiente, proteger la soberanía de Nicaragua y mejorar las condiciones de 29.048 personas, entre indígenas y campesinos, que deberán ser desplazados de sus tierras.

En el documento, el Gobierno nicaragüense señala, por primera vez, las opciones que tienen los campesinos para ser compensados por sus propiedades.

Según el “libro blanco”, cada propiedad cuyo dueño sea un campesino, será negociada de forma individual, y para ser resarcidos, los dueños podrán elegir entre cuatro opciones: pago en efectivo, dinero más una propiedad rústica, una propiedad urbana, o habitar en un nuevo asentamiento más un predio agrícola.

En el caso de los indígenas, sus tierras serán arrendadas a perpetuidad y recibirán una compensación periódica a cambio, de acuerdo con el documento.

En referencia a la soberanía de Nicaragua, el Gobierno garantizó que se continuará luchando contra el crimen internacional, y que la zona del canal estará regida únicamente por las autoridades nicaragüenses.

Asimismo indicó que el ambiente será protegido por medio de 26 planes de prevención, específicamente diseñados para cada ecosistema intervenido.

Entre las medidas de prevención, el Gobierno señaló que los manglares de Brito (Pacífico) “serán preservados” con un muro de roca, para evitar la mezcla de aguas dulce y salada, la ruta fue rediseñada para reducir los impactos económico y social en el departamento (provincia) de Rivas, y los dragados en los litorales solamente se harán por succión.

Además especificó que las aguas del Gran Lago de Nicaragua servirán exclusivamente para el paso de las embarcaciones, no habrá explosiones en su interior, y los 5.000 millones de metros cúbicos de material extraídos se almacenarán en sitios “donde minimicen los impactos ambientales y sociales”.

El Gobierno insistió a lo largo del “libro blanco” en que el proyecto cumple con todas las normas de la Constitución Política de Nicaragua, leyes ambientales y de expropiación de propiedades.

También detalló que realizó consultas a través de 17 grupos focales en la ruta del canal, así como 74 foros, en los que participaron 16.500 personas, más encuestas que mostraron hasta un 74,1 % de percepción positiva en la población.

El proyecto del canal consiste, según los datos del “libro blanco”, en una vía húmeda de 275,5 kilómetros de longitud, de ellos 116,7 kilómetros por tierra y 158,8 kilómetros por agua, con 280 metros de ancho base y 33 metros de profundidad.

El mismo incluye un puerto en el litoral Pacífico, otro en el Caribe, un aeropuerto, zonas de libre comercio a lo largo de la ruta, y carreteras.

El Gobierno nicaragüense espera que la construcción genere 50.000 empleos, más otros 3.700 trabajadores para su operación, y 12.700 en el año 2050, con 113.000 plazas en la zona de libre comercio y 3.000 en centros turísticos, más una fuerte reducción en la pobreza general y pobreza extrema.

La concesión del proyecto pertenece a HKND por 50 años renovables, una vez que inicie operaciones.

Actualmente el proyecto se encuentra en investigaciones complementarias a los Estudios de Impacto Ambiental Social (EIAS), según el Gobierno nicaragüense, pero el libro no precisa la fecha de inicio de las obras.

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